lesson General lesson on geography in the 8th grade on the topic “Climate and climatic resources of Russia Lesson objectives:

Characteristics of the climate of Russia, presentation for a geography lesson (8th grade) on the topic

Slide 1

General characteristics of the Russian climate

Slide 2

Climate-forming factors Factors Geographic latitude Underlying surface VM circulation Solar radiation Relief Nature of the underlying surface VM, atmospheric. fronts, cyclones, winds

Slide 4

Solar radiation

Slide 5

Solar radiation is the emission of heat and light from the Sun. kcal/cm 2 Total radiation is all solar radiation that reaches the earth. P sum = P direct + P scattered

Slide 6

Remember! The lower the geographic latitude, that is, the closer to the equator, the greater the angle of inclination of the sun's rays. The more solar total radiation the earth's surface receives. Continue: The greater the geographic latitude...

Slide 7

Total radiation Geographic latitude Nature of the underlying surface State of the atmosphere

Slide 8

Radiation balance - This is the difference between the total radiation and its losses due to reflection and thermal radiation. DETERMINES: Temperature distribution in the soil and lower layers of the troposphere, snow melting, evaporation and other processes. Radiation balance for the year in Russia “+”, in winter “-”, in summer “+”

Slide 9

Air masses are large masses of the troposphere, differing in their properties (temperature, humidity, transparency). Arctic (AVM) Temperate (UVM) Tropical (TVM)

Slide 10

Basic and transitional climatic zones. A climate zone is a territory in which a certain type of air mass (AM) is common. The main climate zones have their own air masses throughout the year. In transitional climatic zones, VMs of one neighboring climatic zone operate for six months, and for six months of another.

Slide 11

AVM - cold, dry formations formed on the Arctic Ocean

Slide 12

UVM- is formed in temperate latitudes. land Continental (kVUSH) Dry, warm in summer. Cold winter ocean Marine (mVUSH) wet

Slide 14

summer winter Equatorial Tropical Subequatorial Temperate Subequatorial Arctic Antarctic Subarctic Subantarctic COMPUTER COMPUTER TVM TVM TVM UVM UVM UVM AVM AVM Movement of air masses ND ND ND HP ND ND

Slide 15

Basic and transitional climatic zones. Climate zone VM R t° C precipitation seasonality Equatorial Subequatorial Tropical Subtropical Temperate Subarctic Subantarctic Arctic Antarctic EVM TVM UVM AVM N ↑↑ high a lot all year round 1 N ↑↑ B ↓↓ B ↓↓ high W – cool . little all year 1 by season l – high z – low a lot, but unevenly 4 low little all year 1 l – computer z – TVM high z – warm l – a lot z – little 1 l – TVM z – UVM l – hot z – cool l - little h - unevenly 2 l - dry h - wet l - UVM h - AVM low l - unevenly h - little 2 l - six months day h - six months night

Slide 16

Passing through the vast territory of Russia, VMs change their properties (transformation of VMs). In temperate latitudes, westerly winds dominate. There are monsoons in the Far East.

Slide 19

Types of climates in Russia and their characteristics Climate zone Climate type Territory Characteristics Arctic Arctic deserts Islands of the Arctic Ocean and its Siberian coasts Cold Arctic VM, in winter - t up to -50 ° C, in summer - t up to +4 ° C. Cloudy weather, precipitation up to 300 mm/year, mainly in the form of snow. Subarctic Subarctic Areas beyond the Arctic Circle, in Eastern Siberia up to latitude 60. In summer there are humid CMs of temperate latitudes, in winter - arctic CMs, t l - up to +14 °, w - up to -40 ° C. Cyclones are typical, precipitation up to 600 mm/year, more than evaporates. Temperate Temperate continental European part of Russia Great influence of Atlantic volcanoes and western transport, Arctic volcanoes invade, t l - up to +22 °, w - up to -18 ° C. Precipitation up to 800 mm/year (decreasing from W to E).

Slide 20

Temperate Continental Western Siberia Meridional circulation of the VM is characteristic, cyclonic activity weakens. Precipitation from 300 mm to 600 mm/year. The continental climate increases from North to South in summer up to +25°, in winter up to –25°. Moderate Sharply continental Eastern Siberia, mountains of southern Siberia Continental VM of temperate latitudes dominates all year round. Asian maximum pressure. Precipitation up to 400 mm/year, t in summer up to +26 °, in winter about – 40 °. Moderate Monsoon Far East Warm humid summers (+16°), frosty dry winters (up to -25°), high precipitation (800 mm in summer), influenced by the monsoon. Pacific cyclone - in summer, in winter - Asian maximum.

Slide 21

Can humans influence the climate? The greenhouse effect is a gradual warming of the planet's climate as a result of the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other substances in the atmosphere that prevent the radiation of heat from the earth's surface into space. The Arctic is experiencing the most powerful changes in the last 200 thousand years. The area of ​​Arctic ice is shrinking. Images taken from space by NASA experts clearly show how the area of ​​ice in the Arctic Ocean has changed over the past 30 years.

Slide 22

The melting of permafrost, in addition to rising water levels in the World Ocean, will also lead to a large release of carbon into the atmosphere. Bacteria in the soil, after the ice melts, will begin to actively multiply and produce methane, which is 20 times more dangerous in terms of the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide. According to scientists, the northern provinces of Canada, Alaska and Russia will suffer the most from the release of gases as a result of melting ice.

so UNT / Geography / Lesson plans for geography 8th grade


19.08.2014 6395 0

Objectives: consolidate and systematize previously acquired knowledge; form a generalized idea of ​​climatic zones and climate types on the territory of Russia; develop the ability to compile characteristics of climatic regions using maps and plans, determine the weather using a synoptic map; systematize and expand students’ ideas about the impact of climate on human life, health, and economic activity; to generate knowledge about agroclimatic resources and adverse climatic phenomena.

During the classes

I. Testing knowledge and skills on the topic “Patterns of distribution of heat and moisture on the territory of Russia.”

It is recommended to start the lesson by consolidating and generalizing knowledge and skills to characterize and calculate moisture for various regions of our country. You can use the following questions and tasks:

• What is hydration?

• What kind of hydration is called excessive, sufficient, insufficient, poor?

• What is the moisture coefficient?

• Prove that humidification depends on air temperature and does not depend on the average annual precipitation.

• Explain the patterns of evaporation distribution across the territory of Russia.

• Calculate the humidification coefficient for Yekaterinburg and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky using climate maps; Explain why these cities, located at approximately the same latitudes, have different humidity levels and are located in different plant zones.

In this lesson, it is not necessary to conduct a survey of students, since the quality of assimilation of knowledge and skills will be revealed when characterizing climatic zones during practical work.

II. Introductory conversation and preparation for the perception of new knowledge.

Before characterizing the main properties of Russian climate types, it is recommended to write down a characterization plan in a notebook.


1. Physiographic location of the climatic region.

2. The amount of total radiation.

3. Average temperatures in July and January, annual temperature range.

4. Average annual precipitation, evaporation, moisture coefficient.

5. Prevailing air masses and typical atmospheric processes.

6. Climate influence on vegetation and river network.

Characterize the climate of a specific locality

can be in the form of a summary table. In it, the physical-geographical position of the region is replaced by the latitude of the point, and the point “The influence of climate on human life” is added.


1. Independent work of students to characterize the types of climate in Russia using maps and a plan.

Example of doing the job:

Characteristics of the climate of steppes with insufficient moisture (territory of the Volgograd region).

1) The climatic region is located in the southern part of the Russian Plain.

2) Total radiation - 110 - 120 kcal/cm2.

3) The average July temperature is + 24 °C, the average January temperature is -8 °C, the annual temperature range is 32 °C.

4) Average annual precipitation - 400 mm, evaporation - 1000, humidification coefficient - 0.4.

5) KUVM and mTVM dominate.

6) Insufficient moisture promotes the development of steppe vegetation.
The river network is represented by large rivers (Volga, Don), fed by snow, underground and by tributaries. Upon completion of the work, having previously drawn the attention of schoolchildren to the variety of climate types on the territory of Russia, the teacher invites them to answer the question and complete the task:
1) What explains the exceptional diversity and characteristics of climatic conditions on the territory of our country?

2) Name the reasons and factors, highlighting the main ones.

Answers contribute to the generalization and systematization of knowledge about

climate-forming factors at a new, higher level, stimulate independent thinking of students.

2. This stage of the lesson can be called “Climate and People.” The name reflects its main goal to trace the influence of humans on climate and climate on humans. The study begins with a problematic question: “What has happened to climate and weather in recent decades?” After listening to the students, the teacher discusses the problem, summarizes and systematizes the answers received.

Over the past decades, extreme natural phenomena have become more frequent and can be observed almost simultaneously in many places. So, in 1972, drought struck Eastern Europe, Indochina, Africa, and Latin America. At the end of 1983, records of climatic features of unusual autumn and winter were observed everywhere in the northern hemisphere: there was a very warm winter in Russia; in Western Europe and the USA - severe and very persistent cold at the beginning of winter; in Indochina, instead of sunny, warm weather, it rained and it was cold; In Mexico, record cold was observed - the air temperature dropped to - 8 ° C.

The occurrence of extreme weather events in many places at once can only be caused by global causes common to all regions of the Earth. It has been established that if the circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere acquires unusual features, then, as a rule, it occurs in many places on the planet at once. Changes in the nature of atmospheric circulation over recent decades are evidenced by the following facts: an increase in air pressure in polar latitudes, an increase in the number of days with an eastern form of circulation, a decrease in the number of cyclones and anticyclones over North America and at the same time an increase in the power and lifespan of these pressure formations. But why is the general circulation of the atmosphere changing right now? There are several reasons that, according to scientists, cause such unusual atmospheric circulation in recent decades and changes occurring in the Earth's climate.

First of all, these are anthropogenic changes in the properties of the underlying surface and the gas composition of the atmosphere. They have now reached such proportions that they have begun to affect the general circulation of the atmosphere and climate. This refers to the influence of cities (in large cities the air temperature is 1.5 °C higher on average per year, there is 15% more precipitation, the gas composition is greatly changed and air pollution is increased), reservoirs (wind speed increases, temperature decreases and increases air humidity), drainage of swamps, irrigation (air and soil temperatures drop and relative humidity rises), replacement of forests with arable land, meadows, etc. The second possible reason is frequent and powerful volcanic eruptions, accompanied by the release of large amounts of volcanic ash. As a result of the resulting dust curtain, the influx of solar radiation to the Earth decreases by 2-3%.

It is interesting to discuss with students the question: “Is human dependence on climate decreasing or increasing in modern conditions?”

Teacher. At first glance, it seems to be decreasing, but in fact it is increasing, since complex modern technology is very sensitive to the weather and disruption of its operation causes great difficulties. At the same time, people are still poorly protected from dangerous phenomena - hurricanes, storms, catastrophic downpours, snowfalls, frosts, droughts, etc. The damage from these phenomena is very great. Human casualties are also common. Therefore, dangerous phenomena are carefully studied by scientists, and forecasting capabilities are developed in order to prevent undesirable consequences.

In places where the climate can have a beneficial, healing effect on people, climatic resorts, sanatoriums, and health resorts are organized.

3. When discussing the issue of the influence of climate on human life, health and economic activity, it should be emphasized that almost all sectors of our economy take into account its characteristics.

Teacher. All types of modern transport depend to a very large extent on climatic conditions. Storms, hurricanes and fogs, drifting ice make navigation difficult. Thunderstorms and fogs make it difficult and sometimes become an insurmountable obstacle for aviation. To ensure uninterrupted movement of railway trains in winter, snow drifts have to be dealt with. For this purpose, forest belts have been planted along all the country's railways. Traffic is hampered by fog and ice on the roads. They are especially dangerous on mountain roads.

Climatic conditions have to be taken into account when building houses and technical structures. Thus, in all regions of Siberia where frost prevails, triple glazing of windows is used. The duration of the heating season and methods of heating homes, public and industrial buildings depend on climatic conditions.

It is especially important to take into account the climatic characteristics of the territory when organizing agricultural production. Agricultural crops can produce high, sustainable yields only if they are placed in accordance with the climatic conditions of the area. Thus, to grow winter wheat, you need a snow cover that is stable during the winter and has a thickness of at least 20-30 cm. And in areas where there is a lot of heat and a lot of rain, you can grow such valuable subtropical crops as lemons, tangerines, and tea.

At this stage of the lesson, the teacher forms the concept of “agroclimatic resources” and teaches techniques for reading and analyzing maps of agroclimatic resources.

Teacher. Agroclimatic resources are climate resources that influence agricultural production processes. Indicators of agroclimatic resources are:

• duration of the period with an average daily temperature above +10 °C;

• sum of temperatures for this period;

• moisture coefficient;

• thickness and duration of snow cover.

Tasks for working with the map of agroclimatic resources:

1) Which territories of Russia are sufficiently provided with moisture?

2) Which areas receive large reserves of solar heat?

3) Where in Russia are the most favorable conditions for the development of agriculture created?

4) Name the agricultural crops grown in your area and justify the feasibility of cultivating these crops using indicators from the agroclimatic map.

4. Students are interested in information about adverse climatic phenomena. Key words must be written down in your notebook.

Teacher. Adverse climatic phenomena include droughts, hot winds, frosts, heavy rains, severe frosts, hurricanes, and dust storms. They are caused by the absence or abundance of precipitation, sudden changes in pressure, rapid changes in temperature or climatic conditions themselves.

Drought is prolonged dry weather at elevated air temperatures with no precipitation. Manifests itself as a result of the long-term dominance of anticyclonic weather.

“Droughts on the Russian Plain have been known for a very long time. In 1374, “there was intense heat and heat, and there was not a single drop of rain from above all summer, and there was a strong pestilence on people throughout the Russian land...”. In 1423 in Nizhny Novgorod, Fr. It is known that drought often “visited” the Volga region, almost every 2-3 years.

The droughts of 1891 and 1921 were catastrophic. The earth turned to stone, cracked from the heat, and the grain burned on the roots. 1929 was also a dry year, when only 128 mm of precipitation fell in Samara, and 67 mm in Astrakhan.”

(Ermoshkina A.S. Geography lessons: 8th grade - pp. 65-66.)

Dry wind is a drying wind with a speed of 5 to 20 m/s, high temperature (20-25 ° C) and low relative humidity (less than 30%). It comes from the periphery of the anticyclone.

A dust storm is a strong wind such as a hot wind, blowing and transporting huge masses of fine-grained soil particles and, in deserts, sand over long distances.

Hurricane is a wind of destructive force and duration with a speed of more than 30 m/s. The reason is a large difference in atmospheric pressure at a close distance, which is most often associated with cyclones.

The teacher’s story should be accompanied by a demonstration of atlas maps “Recurrence of droughts on the European territory of Russia” and “The long-term average number of days with dry winds on the European territory of Russia” (p. 31). You can use video clips and illustrative material. Students make prepared reports about dangerous climatic phenomena, including their local area.

5. At the end of the lesson, the teacher organizes work with a synoptic map and teaches how to determine the weather from it. It is impossible to ignore the question of the importance of Russian hydrometeorological services in organizing the work of transport, agricultural work, etc.

Teacher: Complex phenomena occurring in the troposphere are reflected on special maps - synoptic maps, which show the weather condition at a certain hour. The first synoptic maps appeared in 1860. Their compiler was the first weather forecaster Robert Fitzroy, an English hydrograph and meteorologist. He compiled weather maps and gave storm forecasts, which were greatly appreciated by sailors, but these forecasts were not always accurate. Currently, weather forecasts are made by forecasters working in forecasting organizations - the Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, local hydrometeorological centers, weather bureaus, hydrometeorological bureaus, aviation meteorological centers and stations. There are several hundred such organizations in our country, and each of them issues dozens of forecasts within 24 hours. Taking a general count, it turns out that out of 100 forecasts, only 12 do not come true. After all, specialists receive numerous information using artificial satellites. This information is processed on a computer and used to construct synoptic maps. On satellite images you can see the location of cyclones, atmospheric fronts, the birth of hurricanes, etc.

Predicting the weather of the Golden Mountains is worthy...

If we can accurately predict the weather,

We will have nothing to ask from God.

(Lomonosov M.V.)

The operation of modern air, land and sea transport without weather forecasts would be, if not paralyzed, then carried out blindly. Without specialized forecasts for agriculture, the country would lose a significant part of its harvests. In addition, weather forecasters issue warnings about dangerous and severe weather phenomena. Such information helps prevent accidents, save human lives, and reduce the consequences of disasters. The cost of material resources saved due to weather forecasts is several times greater than the cost of maintaining the forecast service itself.

Practical work No. 7. Determination of weather patterns for various points using a synoptic map. Making weather forecasts. Practical work tasks are given on p. 13-14 workbook. You can also use the following tasks:

1) Name the areas where anticyclones are located; determine the atmospheric pressure in the centers of anticyclones. What signs characterize the weather conditions in anticyclonic areas? Give reasons explaining the weather conditions.

2) Name the areas where cyclones are located; determine the amount of atmospheric pressure and describe the weather condition in the cyclone: ​​temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, wind strength and direction. How can we explain the weather conditions in a cyclone?

3) Compare the weather in two localities; explain the reasons for the differences.

4) What air masses separate the warm front? What kind of weather does it bring in the field of promotion?

IV.Secure the material.

There is very little time left to consolidate the material, so it is recommended to use it to review particularly difficult topics and keywords. It is necessary to focus students’ attention on what they need to know and be able to do upon completion of the topic “Climate and agroclimatic resources.”

V. Summing up the lesson.

Homework: § 11, complete task 6 on p. 72 in writing, tasks on a contour map (pp. 42-43 of the workbook), prepare for a knowledge test on the entire topic.

Characteristics of the temperate climate zone

Most of the Russian territory is located in the temperate climate zone. Seasonality is well expressed here: summers are warm, winters are quite frosty with snow cover. This happens due to the strong difference in the amount of solar heat reaching the surface throughout the year. Since the country’s territory is quite vast, the climate, even within one climate zone, can vary greatly both from north to south and from west to east.

In this regard, within the temperate zone there are 5 climatic regions:

  • region of temperate continental climate on the East European Plain,
  • continental in most of Western Siberia and the southeast of the East European Plain;
  • sharply continental in Eastern Siberia;
  • monsoon on the eastern outskirts of Russia;
  • marine on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Pacific Islands.

The temperate continental climate is characterized by less severe winters due to the supply of Atlantic air. Summer is warm, with July temperatures from +12⁰С to +24⁰С. January temperatures vary from -8⁰С to -16⁰С. Winter weather is fickle: cold snaps with bright sunny weather are followed by soft cloudy days. Due to the frequent change of various air masses in the temperate continental climate, a lot of precipitation falls - on average about 800 mm.

Western and Eastern Siberia

On the territory of Western Siberia there is an area of ​​continental climate. Due to the general slope of the territory to the north, it is dominated by cold Arctic air, brought by sharp northern winds. In addition, the Ural Mountains do not allow warm and humid Atlantic air to penetrate. This creates conditions for a long, harsh winter and a short summer. Average July temperatures range from +12⁰С to +20⁰С, January temperatures from -28⁰С to -18⁰С. There is less precipitation than in the European part of Russia: about 400 mm per year.

Eastern Siberia is characterized by the formation of a sharply continental climate. Due to the small amount of precipitation (no more than 400 mm per year) and the dominance of temperate air, there is a significant difference between summer and winter temperatures. Winter indicators are extremely low: from -24⁰С to -40⁰С in January. Average July temperatures range from +16⁰С to +20⁰С .

Far East

The mountainous territory of the Far East is suitable for the formation of a monsoon climate. In summer, humid sea air comes from the Pacific Ocean, which is why most of the rainfall occurs during this period. The average temperature in July is +16⁰С. The average precipitation is 700 mm per year. In winter, continental air of temperate latitudes dominates here, which is why there is almost no snowfall in winter, and temperatures are almost Siberian: the average January temperature is -20⁰C.

The marine climate generally differs from the monsoon climate in more abundant precipitation: 600-800 mm per year, sometimes more than 1000 mm. Average July temperatures range from +17⁰С to +24⁰С, average January temperatures are about -8⁰С.

General characteristics of the Russian climate

Russia's geographical location is one of the northernmost countries in the world. Located on the largest continent - Eurasia, it occupies almost a third of the continent's territory. Its borders extend from the eastern part of Europe to the northern expanses of Asia, and the climate is incredibly diverse in its characteristics.

Depending on the geographical location, climatic characteristics such as temperature, humidity, amount of solar radiation, pressure, precipitation and much more change significantly. The most significant changes can be observed when moving in the direction from north to south and from east to west.

The main characteristics are still the amount of radiation reaching the surface of the earth, on which the air temperature directly depends, and the characteristics of the movement of large masses of air. Based on long-term observations of these factors, scientists have identified climatic zones and climatic regions. They differ from each other in the value of total solar radiation, the sum of temperatures per year, and the ratio of heat and moisture.

In the Arctic regions, winter never ends. During the polar night, severely frosty weather prevails, and in the summer, solar heat warms the upper layers of snow and glaciers. However, the cold air coming from the oceans does not allow the atmosphere to warm up well enough, so the overall temperature background remains very low.

The subarctic zone is located beyond the Arctic Circle. It mainly affects the East European Plain and Western Siberia. These areas experience short summers. From late June to mid-August, the average temperature is +10⁰С, and snow melts to the level of permafrost. Winter is no less severe than in the Arctic regions. The lower level of winter temperatures is strongly influenced by the proximity of seas and oceans.

The shortest duration of the cold period is in the subtropics . In Russia, the subtropical region covers only the Black Sea coast. Here, positive temperatures prevail throughout the year, and in winter the temperature very rarely drops below zero. Snow falls without forming a permanent snow cover.

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